USDA

Process Turns Barley into High-protein Fish Food

USDA Agricultural Research Service - Mon, 07/14/2014 - 08:10
Process Turns Barley into High-protein Fish Food / July 14, 2014 / News from the USDA Agricultural Research Service
Read the magazine story to find out more.

 Three rainbow trout swimming over rocks. Link to photo information
A patented new process turns barley into a perfect high protein feed for carnivorous fish like salmon and rainbow trout as a plant-based alternative to fishmeal, which is made from small ocean fish. Click the image for more information about it.


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Process Turns Barley into High-protein Fish Food

By Sandra Avant
July 14, 2014

A process that improves the nutritional value of barley for use in fish feed has been developed by scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Montana Microbial Products LLC (MMP) of Missoula, Montana.

Barley typically contains about 10 to12 percent protein, but 40 to 60 percent protein is needed in diets of carnivorous fish like rainbow trout and salmon. The new enzymatic process patented by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and MMP concentrates protein by removing the carbohydrates in barley and turning them into an ethanol coproduct, utilizing all the nutrients in the grain.

ARS is USDA's principal intramural scientific research agency, and this research supports the USDA priority of promoting international food security.

The new high-protein product produced by this technology should help fill the gap for more plant-based protein sources as alternatives to fishmeal, which is made from small ocean fish, according to fish physiologist Rick Barrows, with the ARS Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research Unit in Aberdeen, Idaho. In addition, barley protein concentrate has less variability in composition and is less expensive than most fishmeals.

Barrows, who works in Bozeman, Montana, and his team tested barley protein concentrate in rainbow trout and found digestibility—the percentage of nutrients available to the fish—to be as high as 95 percent. The product also was tested in Atlantic salmon by research leader William Wolters and fish physiologist Gary Burr at the ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center in Franklin, Maine.

Atlantic salmon were fed a diet containing either 11 percent or 22 percent barley protein concentrate. The growth of those salmon was not significantly different from salmon fed a standard fishmeal diet. Also, the fish that ate the 22 percent barley protein concentrate diet had significantly greater energy retention compared to fish fed the other diets. Higher energy retention demonstrates that the fish are using the feed more efficiently.

MMP has built a commercial prototype plant in Montana to produce barley protein concentrate for trout feeding trials. The company also plans to build a commercial facility in the near future.

Categories: USDA

Reducing Fertilizer Use with a More Accurate Soil Test

USDA Agricultural Research Service - Thu, 07/10/2014 - 12:03
Reducing Fertilizer Use with a More Accurate Soil Test / July 10, 2014 / News from the USDA Agricultural Research Service
Read the magazine story to find out more.

 Hands holding soil. Link to photo information
An ARS soil scientist has developed a more precise test for how much fertilizer a farmer needs to add to a field, reducing costs by about $10 to $15 per acre and the chances there will be excess running off into surface water. Click the image for more information about it.


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Reducing Fertilizer Use with a More Accurate Soil Test

By Dennis O'Brien
July 10, 2014

Soil tests that determine fertilizer needs measure nitrate in the soil, but they don't sufficiently account for soil microbes, which mineralize organic nitrogen and make more of it available to a crop. As a result, farmers often apply more fertilizer than they need.

Richard Haney, a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil scientist in Temple, Texas, has developed a soil test that replicates some of the natural processes that occur in a field and accounts for that microbial activity, along with measuring nitrate, ammonium (NH4), and organic nitrogen.

Haney is with the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory in Temple. ARS is USDA's principal intramural scientific research agency.

The new soil test is known as the Soil Health Tool. It involves drying and rewetting soil to mimic the effects of precipitation. It also uses the same organic acids that plant roots use to acquire nutrients from the soil. The tool measures organic carbon and other nutrients, accounts for the effects of using cover crops and no-till practices, and will work for any crop produced with nitrogen or other types of nutrient fertilizer.

Haney has made it available to commercial and university soil testing laboratories and has worked with farmers to promote it. Growers who use it receive a spreadsheet that shows the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium available to crops. On average, they reduce fertilizer costs by about $10 to $15 per acre. With less fertilizer applied, there is less of it running off into surface water.

Haney and Daren Harmel, an ARS agricultural engineer at the Temple lab, evaluated the tool in fields where they raised wheat, corn, oats, and grain sorghum at nine Texas sites over four years. They applied traditional fertilizer rates; no fertilizer; and the amounts dictated by the Haney soil tests. They planted and harvested on the same dates at each site, and kept track of fertilizer costs and application dates, crop prices, and overall profits.

They found that the tool reduced fertilizer use by 30 to 50 percent and reduced fertilizer costs by up to 39 percent. The enhanced testing methods had little effect on corn production profits, but increased profits by 7 to 18 percent in wheat, oat, and sorghum fields. The results were published in the Open Journal of Soil Science.

Read more about this research in the July 2014 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.

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