Gramig, G. and C. Keene. 2017. Organic Management of Canada Thistle. North Dakota State University Extension (W1860). Available at

Orloff N, Mangold J, Miller Z, Menalled F. 2018. A meta-analysis of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.) management in organic agricultural systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 254:264-272. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2017.11.024

C. McFarland, R. Zuger, P. Carr, and I. C. Burke. 2019. Washington State University Weed Control Report. Available at

Conference Abstracts

Competition Between Canada Thistle and Crops in Organic Cropping Systems of the Northern Great Plains. Daniel Chichinsky, Tim Seipel, Perry Miller, Fabian D. Menalled, Patrick Carr, Greta G. Gramig. Poster. Weed Science Society of America Annual Meeting. Abstract available at