Additional Resources About Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD)

Extension and Magazine Articles

  • Paudel, B.R., Di Gioia, F., Zhu, Q., Zhao, X., Ozores-Hampton, M. Swisher, M.E., Sattanno, K., Hong, J.C., and Rosskopf, E.N. Implementation of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation in Florida Tomato Production. University of Florida Extension. Available at
  • Muramoto, J., Di Gioia, F., Butler, D.M., Daugovish, O. ,Louws, F.J. ,Rosskopf, E. and Shennan, C. 2021. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation as an Organic Systems-Based Approach. Organic Farmer Magazine.
    Part 1: Biological Method Suppresses Soilborne Pathogens and Pests and Improves Crop Health. Available at
    Part 2: ASD Implementation Strategies for Different Regions in the U.S. Available at

Webinars, Videos and Podcasts


Selected Journal Articles

  • BUTLER, D.M., KOKALIS-BURELLE, N., MURAMOTO, J., SHENNAN, C., MCCOLLUM, T.G., ROSSKOPF, E.N. 2012. Impact of anaerobic soil disinfestation combined with soil solarization on plant–parasitic nematodes and introduced inoculum of soilborne plant pathogens in raised-bed vegetable production. Crop Protection, 39, 33-40. 
  • DI GIOIA F., HONG J., OZORES-HAMPTON M., ZHAO X., WILSON C.P., THOMAS J., LI Z., PISANI C., GUO H., PAUDEL B.R., ALBANO J., BUTLER D.M., ROSSKOPF E.N. 2020. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation: Nutrient Cycling and Potential Environmental Impact. Acta Horticulturae 1270, 51-62. 
  • DI GIOIA F., OZORES-HAMPTON M., HONG J., KOKALIS-BURELLE N., ALBANO J., ZHAO X., BLACK Z., GAO Z., WILSON C., THOMAS J., MOORE K., SWISHER M., GUO H., ROSSKOPF E.N. 2016. The effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on weed and nematode control, fruit yield and quality of Florida fresh-market tomato.HortScience, 51 (6): 703-711. 
  • DI GIOIA, F., OZORES-HAMPTON, M., ZHAO, X., THOMAS, J., WILSON, P., LI, Z., HONG, J., ALBANO, J., SWISHER, M., ROSSKOPF, E. 2017. Anaerobic soil disinfestation impact on soil nutrients dynamics and nitrous oxide emissions in fresh-market tomato.Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 240: 194-205. 
  • GUO H., DI GIOIA F., ZHAO X., OZORES-HAMPTON M., SWISHER M.E., HONG J., KOKALIS-BURELLE N., DELONG A.N., ROSSKOPF E.N. 2017. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation for fresh market tomato production: Nematode and weed control, yield, and fruit quality.Scientia Horticulturae, 218: 105-116. 
  • GUO H., ZHAO X., ROSSKOPF E.N., DI GIOIA F., HONG J.C., MCNEAR D.H. 2018. Impacts of anaerobic soil disinfestation and chemical fumigation on soil microbial communities in field tomato production system.Applied Soil Ecology, 126: 165-173. 
  • HEWAVITHARANA, S.S., KLARER, E., REED, A.J., LEISSO, R., POIRIER, B., HONAAS, L., RUDELL, D.R., MAZZOLA, M. 2019. Temporal dynamics of the soil metabolome and microbiome during simulated anaerobic soil disinfestation. Frontiers in microbiology, 10, 2365. 
  • HONG J., DI GIOIA F., JONES J.B., TURECHEK W., KOKALIS-BURELLE N., JOHNS C.W., FINLEY N., OZORES-HAMPTON M., McCOLLUM G., ROSSKOPF E.N. 2020.Defining Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation through Changes in the Microbiome. Acta Horticulturae 1270, 97-110. 
  • PAUDEL, B.R., DI GIOIA F., ZHAO, X., OZORES-HAMPTON, M., HONG, J.C., KOKALIS-BURELLE, N., PISANI, C., AND ROSSKOPF, E.N. 2020. Evaluating anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management strategies for open-field tomato production in Florida.Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 
  • ROSSKOPF E.N., DI GIOIA F., HONG J., OZORES-HAMPTON M., ZHAO X., BLACK Z., GAO Z., WILSON C.P., THOMAS J., JONES J., SATTANNO K., DELONG A., SWISHER M., KOKALIS-BURELLE N., WANG J., LI Z., SHI L., PISANI C., GUO H., ZHU Q., PAUDEL B., JOHNS C.W., FINLEY N., MURAMOTO J., ALBANO J., SHENNAN C.2020.Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation: Areawide Project on Obstacles and Adoption.Acta Horticulturae1270, 23-36. 
  • ROSSKOPF E.N., DI GIOIA F., HONG J., PISANI C., KOKALIS-BURELLE N. Organic Amendments for Pathogen and Nematode Control. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 58, 277-311. 
  • SHI L., WANG J., GAO Z., ZHAO X., DI GIOIA F., GUO H., HONG J., OZORES-HAMPTON M., PISANI C. ROSSKOPF E.N. 2019. Economic Analysis of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation for Open-field Fresh-market Tomato Production in Southwest and North Florida.HortTechnology. 29(6) 777-787. 
  • SHRESTHA, U., OWNLEY, B.H., BRUCE, A., ROSSKOPF, E.N., BUTLER, D.M., 2021. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation Efficacy Against Fusarium oxysporum Is Affected by Soil Temperature, Amendment Type, Rate, and C: N Ratio. Phytopathology, 111(8), 1380-1392. 
  • SHRESTHA, U., SWILLING, K.J., BUTLER, D.M. 2021. Amendment properties affect crop performance, leaf tissue nitrogen, and soil nitrogen availability following soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 299. 
  • SWILLING, K.J., SHRESTHA, U., OWNLEY, B.H., GWINN, K.D., BUTLER, D.M. 2021. Mechanisms of anaerobic soil disinfestation: Volatile fatty acids reduce viability of Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii sclerotia in acidic soil conditions and have limited effects on endemic Trichoderma spp. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 441. 
  • SWILLING, K.J., SHRESTHA, U., OWNLEY, B.H., GWINN, K.D., BUTLER, D.M. 2021. Volatile fatty acid concentration, soil pH and soil texture during anaerobic soil conditions affect viability of Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii sclerotia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 1-13. 
  • TESTEN, A.L., MARTÍNEZ, M.B., MADRID, A.J., DEBLAIS, L., TAYLOR, C.G., PAUL, P.A., MILLER, S.A. 2021. On-farm evaluations of anaerobic soil disinfestation and grafting for management of a widespread soilborne disease complex in protected culture tomato production. Phytopathology, 111(6), 954-965. 
  • TESTEN, A.L., ROTONDO, F., MILLS, M.P., HORVAT, M.M., MILLER, S.A. 2021. Evaluation of agricultural byproducts and cover crops as anaerobic soil disinfestation carbon sources for managing a soilborne disease complex in high tunnel tomatoes. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 5, 145. 
  • TESTEN, A.L., MILLER, S.A. 2019. Anaerobic soil disinfestation to manage soilborne diseases in muck soil vegetable production systems. Plant disease, 103(7), 1757-1762. 
  • VECCHIA L., DI GIOIA F., FERRANTE, A. HONG J.C., WHITE C., ROSSKOPF E. 2020. Integrating Cover Crops as a Source of Carbon for Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation. Agronomy 10 (10), 1614.