Photo Gallery

A. Integrating the use of cover crops and anaerobic soil disinfestation

A1. Measuring sorghum cover crop biomass.


A2. Sorghum cover crop mechanically harvested and chopped with a flail mower.

A3. Ploughing sorghum cover crop residues.

A4. Incorporation of sorghum cover crop residues using a rototiller.

A5. Incorporation of alternative carbon sources and organic amendments in the top 8 inches (20 cm) of soil using a rototiller.

A6. Soil mulching of raised beds with totally impermeable film.

A7. Punching holes and planting four weeks after applying ASD.

A8. Soil sampling before harvesting green and red Salanova lettuce grown on ASD experimental plots.

B. On-farm anaerobic soil disinfestation demonstration in high tunnel tomato production system

B1. Soil amendment with organic granular chicken manure used as supplementary source of organic nitrogen.


B2. Application along the rows of the carbon source: sugarcane molasses (feed grade) applied after dilution 1:1 (v:v) with water at the rate of 1,482 gal/acre.


B3.B3. Incorporation of soil organic amendment in the bed area using a small walk-behind rototiller.


B4. Raised bed formation, application of two drip-tape lines per bed, and bed mulching with black totally impermeable film.


B5. Installation of soil redox potential sensors used to monitor the development of anaerobic conditions right after the ASD treatment application.


B6. Healthy fresh-market tomato plants growing in high tunnel over the early spring following the application of the ASD treatment conducted in the fall.

Evaluation of alternative over-wintering cover crops as potential carbon sources for spring ASD applications in Pennsylvania

C1. Seeding over-wintering cover crops with a plot drill seeder in Central Pennsylvania (September 12, 2021).


C2. Experimental plot view with close-up on a triticale plot (September 30, 2021).


C3. Cover crop emergence and plant count assessment in randomly selected sampling areas. (October 1, 2021).


C4. Close-up of a pre-marked sampling area in a triticale plot (October 12, 2021).


C5. Cover crop experimental plot view (October 27, 2021).


C6. Detail of triticale monoculture plot coverage (October 27, 2021).


C7. Detail of Crimson clover monoculture plot coverage (October 27, 2021).


C8. Detail of Crimson clover and triticale mix plot coverage (October 27, 2021).


C9. Assessment of cover crop plot greenness and nitrogen status using a handheld NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) sensor (November 3, 2021).


C10. Detail of assessment conducted using the handheld NDVI sensor GreenSeeker (November 3, 2021).


D. Evaluation of by-products of the local agri-food industry as alternative sources of carbon.

D1. Soil sampling before establishing the ASD experiment in a plot of the movable high tunnel structure at the Penn State Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center.


D2. Delivery of spent mushroom compost deriving from a mushroom production facility in Pennsylvania.


D3. Pick up of wheat middlings from a local mill in Central Pennsylvania.


D4. Pick up of fresh brewer’s spent grain from a local brewery.


D5. Fresh edamame crop residues generated from a local food processing facility in Central Pennsylvania.

D6. Pick up of a tote of feed-grad sugarcane molasses. Molasses is used as a standard source of carbon.

D7. Molasses and alternative sources of C application in small experimental plots.


D8. Soil amendment with alternative sources of carbon in small experimental plot.


D9. Experimental ASD plot covered with the movable high tunnel structure and raised beds mulched with totally impermeable film and data loggers installation with soil redox potential, soil temperature sensors.


D10. Planting green Salanova lettuce post ASD treatment.

D11. Installation of row cover for protecting lettuce plants over the winter months.


D12. View of green Salanova lettuce in proximity of the harvest.

D13. Measuring leaf area of lettuce heads harvested from the ASD experimental plot.


D14. Characterization and analysis of the total sugar content in alternative sources of carbon.

D15. Equipment used for the spectrophotometric analysis of easily oxidizable carbon in alternative sources of carbon.